J Food Biochem. 2021 Apr;45(4):e13625. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13625. Epub 2021 Feb 9.
Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of a myriad of chronic disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to determine the effects of Nigella Sativa (NS) seed and seed oil consumption on several biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. The Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed-MEDLINE databases were systematically searched until August 2019. The quality assessment and heterogeneity of the selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were measured using the Jadad checklist, and Q and I2 tests, respectively. Finally, a total of 10 clinical RCTs were found to be eligible for this meta-analysis. The pooled findings showed that NS consumption significantly reduced serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; WMD: -0.67, 95% CI: -1.29, -0.05, I2 = 95.7%), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α; WMD: -2.29, 95% CI: -4.48, -0.11, I2 = 93%), and malondialdehyde (MDA; WMD: -1.18, 95% CI: -2.24, -0.12, I2 = 85.4%), and significantly increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC; WMD: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.59, I2 = 77.1%), and superoxide dismutase (SOD; WMD: 66.30, 95% CI: 1.03, 131.57, I2 = 99.4%) levels. Overall, the results of this systematic review and meta-analysis imply that NS consumption may decrease inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Overall, the evidence supports the consumption of NS to reduce hs-CRP, TNF-α, and MDA, and to increase SOD and TAC levels. In addition, the subgroup analyses findings concluded that lower dosages of NS, longer durations of the intervention, and the use of NS seed oil may result in more effective action on inflammatory markers, but because of the limited number of trials, the results must be analyzed with caution, especially for the subgroup analysis. However, further prospective studies regarding the effect of NS consumption on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, with larger sample sizes, from various countries and longer follow-up periods, are required to confirm whether NS possesses veritable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.