Phytother Res. 2021 Mar 16. doi: 10.1002/ptr.7079. Online ahead of print.
Phytonutrients exert several pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, we performed an umbrella review of the association of phytonutrient supplements (PNSs) with biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Relevant published systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical trials were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library until July 4, 2020. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for summarized effects and I2 statistics of heterogeneity were extracted from individual studies or reanalyzed using a random-effects model. Of the 50 included studies, pooled effects of PNSs on blood pressure, lipid profiles, and glycemic control were reported in 16, 25, and 14 articles, respectively. The findings appeared to be highly heterogeneous among individual trials of included systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Ginger (WMD = -6.36 mmHg, 95% CI = -11.27, -1.46) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (WMD = -7.58 mmHg, 95% CI = -9.69, -5.46) were associated with lowered systolic blood pressure, whereas Aloe vera, Nigella sativa, and spirulina were associated with beneficial effects on both lipid profiles and glycemic control. In summary, this umbrella review has provided up-to-date evidence for the effect of PNSs on biomarkers related to hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. The results must be interpreted with caution due to potential heterogeneity.