Immunomodulatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polysaccharides by gut microbial and proteomic technologies

Cyclophosphamide (CTX) was used to establish the immunosuppressive mice model. The immune organ viscera index, phagocytes vitality, the levels of cytokines in serum, the oxidative stress resistance, proteomics and intestinal flora in mice were investigated to evaluate the effect of immune regulation of Nigella sativa seed polysaccharide (NSSP). The results showed that the high-dose NSSP group could significantly increase the thymus and spleen index. The levels of ACP, LDH, T-AOC, SOD, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly increased and the levels of TNF-α and MDA were reduced. All evidences indicated that NSSP could improve the immune effects of the immunosuppressed mice. Proteomics investigation showed that NSSP could improve the immune by regulating the differential proteins of PI3K and PTEN, and regulating the metabolism-related pathways such as autoimmune diseases and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. of Gut microbes analysis showed that NSSP could exert immunomodulatory effects by improving the structure of the intestinal flora, increasing the diversity of the flora, and regulating metabolic pathways such as lipid metabolism, polysaccharide synthesis and signal transduction by the prediction of flora metabolic functions. In addition, NSSP could regulate intestinal environment by regulating the content of short chain fatty acids.

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