Therapeutic effects of thymoquinone or capsaicin on acrylamide-induced reproductive toxicity in rats mediated by their effect on oxidative stress, inflammation, and tight junction integrity

Drug Chem Toxicol. 2021 Jul 7:1-13. doi: 10.1080/01480545.2021.1942485. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT In the field of environmental toxicology, endocrine-disrupting effects have become a major concern. The present research set out to investigate the possible reproductive toxicity of acrylamide. The research was also expanded to explore the protective effects of two nutraceuticals, thymoquinone (TQ) and […]

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Thymoquinone dose-dependently attenuates myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats via integrated modulations of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and fibrosis

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2021 Jul 3. doi: 10.1007/s00210-021-02087-1. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT As rats develop myocardial infarction (MI) like lesions when injected with large doses of isoproterenol (ISO), this investigation was designed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on ISO-induced myocardial injury in rats. Adult male rats were divided into negative […]

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The effect of Nigella sativa on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review of literature was conducted to study the effect of Nigella sativa (N.S) on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. OUTLOOK: Generally speaking, N.S probably results in the improvement of superoxide dismutase serum levels, TNF-α, and total antioxidant capacity. Thus, further studies are required to fully assess its impacts on all oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers.

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Protective Effects of Thymoquinone, an Active Compound of Nigella sativa, on Rats with Benzo(a)pyrene-Induced Lung Injury through Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

Benzopyrene [B(a)P] is a well-recognized environmental carcinogen, which promotes oxidative stress, inflammation, and other metabolic complications. In the current study, the therapeutic effects of thymoquinone (TQ) against B(a)P-induced lung injury in experimental rats were examined. B(a)P used at 50 mg/kg b.w. induced lung injury that was investigated via the evaluation of lipid profile, inflammatory markers, nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. B(a)P also led to a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) (34.3 vs. 58.5 U/mg protein), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (42.4 vs. 72.8 U/mg protein), catalase (CAT) (21.2 vs. 30.5 U/mg protein), and total antioxidant capacity compared to normal animals. Treatment with TQ, used at 50 mg/kg b.w., led to a significant reduction in triglycerides (TG) (196.2 vs. 233.7 mg/dL), total cholesterol (TC) (107.2 vs. 129.3 mg/dL), and inflammatory markers and increased the antioxidant enzyme level in comparison with the group that was administered B(a)P only (p < 0.05). B(a)P administration led to the thickening of lung epithelium, increased inflammatory cell infiltration, damaged lung tissue architecture, and led to accumulation of collagen fibres as studied through haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Sirius red, and Masson’s trichrome staining. Moreover, the recognition of apoptotic nuclei and expression pattern of NF-κB were evaluated through the TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The histopathological changes were found to be considerably low in the TQ-treated animal group. The TUNEL-positive cells increased significantly in the B(a)P-induced group, whereas the TQ-treated group showed a decreased apoptosis rate. Significantly high cytoplasmic expression of NF-κB in the B(a)P-induced group was seen, and this expression was prominently reduced in the TQ-treated group. Our results suggest that TQ can be used in the protection against benzopyrene-caused lung injury.

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Thymoquinone, extract from Nigella sativa seeds, protects human skin keratinocytes against UVA-irradiated oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction

Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation caused skin keratinocytes to accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to the skin injury. Thymoquinone (TQ) was identified as the prominent bioactive ingredient in Nigella sativa seeds which was applied in therapying various human diseases. This study aimed to illustrate the role and mechanism of TQ in UVA-induced skin injury. We pre-treated HaCaT cells with TQ and irradiated them by UVA. MTT and Elisa assays were used to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis, as well as cytokine levels. To detect the related parameters of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, bioluminescence, and dual-luciferase reporter methods were used. RT-qPCR and western blotting were performed for expressions of related mRNAs and proteins. TQ significantly improved the UVA-induced cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells. TQ treatment alleviated the oxidative stress and inflammation in UVA-irradiated keratinocytes. Besides, UVA irradiation promoted mitochondrial dysregulation in HaCaT cells leading to cell apoptosis, which could be reversed by TQ treatment. More importantly, NrF2/ARE pathway was activated in TQ-treated cells, while COX-2 was depressed, and inhibiting the pathway or activating COX-2 blocked the therapeutic effect of TQ on UVA-induced skin cell injury. Our study suggested that TQ treatment attenuated the UVA-induced oxidative and inflammatory responses, as well as mitochondrial apoptosis in keratinocytes by COX-2 inhibition via activating NrF2/ARE pathway. This might be a novel sight for preventing the solar radiation damage to the skin.

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Effects of Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone on radiation-induced oxidative stress in kidney tissue of rats

Ionizing radiation leads to release of free radicals into the systemic circulation from irradiated tissues. These free radicals cause oxidative stress in distant organs. Oxidative status may be reversed by naturally occurring antioxidant agents. The aim of this study was to investigate protective and antioxidant effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) and thymoquinone (TQ) in kidney tissue of rats exposed to cranial irradiation. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: IR group received irradiation (IR) to total cranium plus saline; IR plus NSO group received IR and NSO; IR plus TQ group received IR and TQ; sham group did not receive NSO, TQ or IR; control group of TQ received dimethyl sulfoxide; control group of NSO received saline. Total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels were studied as oxidative parameters, and total antioxidant status (TAS), total sulfhydryl levels, paraoxonase (PON), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and arylesterase activities were determined as antioxidative parameters in the kidney tissue of rats. Kidney TOS, OSI and LOOH levels were significantly lower in IR plus TQ, IR plus NSO and sham groups compared to IR group (p < 0.001). TAS, PON and Cp activities in IR group were significantly lower compared to the control group (p < 0.001). PON and Cp activities were significantly higher in IR plus NSO and IR plus TQ groups compared to IR group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, free radicals generated by cranial ionizing radiation exposure cause oxidative stress in kidney. NSO and TQ exhibit protective and antioxidant effects against oxidative damage in rats.

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Neuroprotective Effects of Thymoquinone by the Modulation of ER Stress and Apoptotic Pathway in In Vitro Model of Excitotoxicity

Experimental evidence indicates that the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors plays an important role in neurological disorders’ models such as epilepsy, cerebral ischemia and trauma. The glutamate receptor agonist kainic acid (KA) induces seizures and excitotoxic cell death in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the most important component of the essential oil obtained from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds. It has many pharmacological actions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. TQ was used in an in vitro experimental model of primary cultures where excitotoxicity was induced. Briefly, rat organotypic hippocampal slices were exposed to 5 µM KA for 24 h. Cell death in the CA3 subregions of slices was quantified by measuring propidium iodide fluorescence. The cross-talk between TQ, ER stress and apoptotic pathways was investigated by Western blot. In untreated slices TQ (10 µM) induced a significant increase on the PSD95 levels and it decreased the excitotoxic injury induced by KA. Additionally, TQ was able to ameliorate the KA-induced increase in unfolded proteins GRP78 and GRP94 expression. Finally, TQ was able to partially rescue the reduction of the KA-induced apoptotic pathway activation. Our results suggest that TQ modulates the processes leading to post-kainate neuronal death in the CA3 hippocampal area.

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The effect of nigella sativa on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

J Food Biochem. 2021 Apr;45(4):e13625. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13625. Epub 2021 Feb 9. ABSTRACT Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of a myriad of chronic disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to determine the effects of Nigella Sativa (NS) seed and seed oil consumption on several biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. […]

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Thymoquinone Prevents Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration by Attenuating Oxidative Stress Via the Nrf2/ARE Pathway

Front Pharmacol. 2021 Jan 14;11:615598. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.615598. eCollection 2020. ABSTRACT Studies have indicated that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative conditions. Research has also revealed that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) triggers the expression of antioxidant genes via a series of antioxidant response […]

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