An Investigation Into the Degree of Sinus Mucosal Delivery of Inhaled Black Cumin Volatile and Peppermint Essential Oils

The aim of this study was to investigate the quantity of volatile components reaching the sinus mucosa (SM) by inhalation, which is responsible for the therapeutic effect, as a first step toward targeted drug design. In this study, 18 Wistar-Albino female rats with an average weight between 200 and 250 g were used. The rats to be used in the study were randomized: Black cumin (BC) essential oil group (group 1) (n = 6), Peppermint essential oil (PEO) group (group 2) (n = 6), and Control (group 3) (n = 6). Volatile oils were inhaled in group 1 and 2; in the control group volatile oils were not inhaled. In all groups, SM was removed and essential volatile oil composition was determined. In group 1, α-pinene was identified as the principal component in the gas phase from five different glass bottles containing SM. The data obtained were evaluated using the single sample T-test and results show that the α-pinene component in the group of inhaled BC essential oil reached significance (P < .001) when compared with the control group. The active component of the BC essential oil could not be identified as thymoquinone. In group 2, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) was identified as the principal component in the gas phase from five different glass bottles containing SM. The data obtained were evaluated using the single sample T-test and it was found that the eucalyptol component in the group which inhaled PEO reached statistical significance (P < .001) compared with the control group. In group 3, no volatile oil compounds were detected. We have demonstrated that both oils (BC and peppermint) are delivered to the SM. There is a need for the optimum dose to be clarified by different methods of measurement than those used in the spectrometric data we have obtained. We are convinced that our work will lead to pharmacological, toxicological, and subsequent clinical trials in this area.

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Novel Insight into Potential Leishmanicidal Activities of Transdermal Patches of Nigella Sativa: Formulation Development, Physical Characterizations, and In vitro/In vivo Assays

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common type of Leishmaniasis, which annually affects 1.5 million people worldwide. About 90% of cases are reported from countries such as Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the present study was to fabricate transdermal patches of Nigella sativa (NS), characterize, and to check its in vitro/in vivo anti-Lieshmanial activity. Hydroalcoholic extract was analyzed for preliminary phytochemicals. Five formulations of transdermal patches (NS1, NS2, NS3, NS4, and NS5) were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The optimized formulation NS5 was characterized for Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), smoothness, brittleness, clarity, thickness, folding endurance, uniformity of weight, percent moisture content, in vitro drug release, release kinetics, ex vivo drug permeation, and in vitro anti-Lieshmanial activity. In vivo anti-Lieshmanial activity was assessed in 30 patients (n = 30) suffering from CL. The FTIR studies showed no incompatibility among the active extract and polymers. In vitro anti-Lieshmanial assay was 194.6% ± 1.88% as compared with standard drug (p > 0.05) and in vivo anti-Lieshmanial activity was 75%. The drug release after 24 h was 87.0% ± 0.94% in NS5, which showed non-Fickian diffusion mechanism while drug permeation across rabbit skin after 24 h was up to 80.0% ± 0.91%. The results concluded that problems related to the parenteral medications used for Lieshmanial treatment can be managed by applying extract of NS seeds in the form of transdermal patch.

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