Pronunciation

BEGINNER LEVEL 1

  • Chunks (words that often go together) and linking the words together [It’s a ___ .//itza ___//]
  • Letter-sound associations (phonemes)
  • One- and two-syllable word patterns
  • Syllable stress in numbers, days, months, etc. [THIRty verus thirTEEN]

BEGINNER LEVEL 2

  • Chunks (words that often go together) and linking the words together [It’s a ___. = Itza___.]
  • Letter-sound associations (phonemes)
  • Recognize/produce intonation for yes/no questions
  • Recognize/produce intonation for Wh-questions

BEGINNER LEVEL 3

  • Syllable stress of new vocabulary
  • S-ending sounds: /s/, /z/ and /Iz/
  • Intonation for yes/no questions
  • Recognize/reproduce pronunciation of chunks (words that go together) and linking the words together

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL 1

  • Phonemes needed to enhance comprehensibility (e.g., based on learners’ needs — /l/ vs /r/ or /th/ vs /t/)
  • Stress of multi-syllabic words
  • Short and long vowel sounds (based on learners’ needs)
  • Schwa sound used in unstressed syllables
  • S-ending sounds: /s/, /z/ and /Iz/
  • Past “-ed” ending sounds: /t/, /d/ and /Id/
  • Shift in meaning when using different emphases in sentence stress
  • Intonation difference for questions and sentences

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL 2

  • Phonemes needed to enhance comprehensibility (e.g., based on learners’ needs — /l/ vs. /r/ or /th/ vs. /t/)
  • Stress of multi-syllabic words
  • Short and long vowel sounds (based on learners’ needs)
  • Schwa sound used in unstressed syllables
  • Shift in meanings when using different emphases in sentence stress
  • Articulating word endings
  • Intonation differences for questions and sentences
  • Phrasing words into “thought groups or chunks” and pausing between the phrases

ADVANCED LEVEL

  • Stress of multi-syllabic words using learned rules to guess stress of new words
  • Phrasing words into thought groups and pausing between the phrases
  • Conversation management techniques, such as interrupting and “turn-taking”